Twelve irrational formulations
which may cause and sustain emotional disturbances.
- It is a dire necessity for an adult human being to be loved by virtually
every significant person in his community.
- One should be thoroughly competent, adequate, and achieving in all
possible respects if one is to consider oneself worthwhile.
- Certain people are bad, wicked, or villainous and they should be severely
blamed and punished for their villainy.
- It is awful and catastrophic when things are not the way one would very
much like them to be.
- Human unhappiness is externally caused and people have little or no
ability to control their sorrows and disturbances.
- If something is or may be dangerous or fearsome, one should be terribly
concerned about it and should keep dwelling on the possibility of its
- It is easier to avoid than to face certain life difficulties and
- One should be dependent on others and needs someone stronger than one-self
on whom to rely.
- One's past history is an all-important determiner of one's present
behavior and because something once strongly affected one's life, it should
indefinitely have a similar effect.
- One should become quite upset over other people's problems and
- There is invariably a right and perfect or precise solution to human
problems and it is catastrophic if this perfect solution is not found.
- Human happiness can be achieved through inertia and inaction.
Source: Dr. Albert
Ellis, Institute for Rational Living.
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